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A wireless sensor network is a network of a large number of independently working small sensing units which can communicate wirelessly. The basic plan of a Wireless sensor network (WSN) is to structural distribute self-determining devices using sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions. Wireless communication technology performance different forms of security threats. WSN need effective security mechanisms because of these networks deployed in untended environments. Due to fixed limitations in wireless sensor networks, security is a crucial issue. The intent of this paper is to investigate the security-related threats and challenges in wireless sensor networks. The threats faced by this WSN are similar but not limited to those observed in a simple network of computers or Internet.We identify thesensorsecuritythreats, review proposed security mechanisms for wireless sensor networks.