Main Article Content
Ubiquitous smart devices with embedded sensors are paving the way for mobile ad hoc networks (ad-hoc network) that enable users to communicate directly, thereby playing a key role in Smart City and Internet of Things applications. In such smart environments, people with smart devices (nodes) can freely self-organize and form self-configuring ad-hoc network to send and forward data packets to a destination over multiple hops via intermediate nodes. Wireless Networks includes a larger advantage in today’s communication application like environmental, traffic, military, and health observation. To realize these applications it's necessary to possess a reliable routing protocol. The main motivation of this paper is to review various routing schemes in ad-hoc network that have recently been proposed to enhance throughput when transmitting and receiving packets during active communication. The review covers various state-of-the-art protocols for each category and highlights their operation concepts, design challenges and key features. In addition, the performance evaluation metrics are also discussed.